This guide shows you some of the most frequently used citation or style questions in APA format.
The 2010 APA Publication Manual (6th edition) says: Use a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in citing articles whether accessed in the print or electronic form. A DOI is prefereable to a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) when citing an online resource.
A DOI is a digital object identifier – a unique alphanumeric code that gives a persistent link to the web location for an electronic item. At this point, more and more journal articles are assigned DOIs. DOIs are commonly seen on current electronic journal articles, but are often also included in the print version of the article. Here is an example of a DOI:
How do I find the DOI for an article?
A few general rules about creating citations in APA style:
Collected Works (e.g. books with different authors for each section/chapter)
Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry
Scholarly Journal Articles
Scholarly Journal Article from Library Database
Note: The DOI (digital object identifier) is preferable to the URL.
Rule #1 of APA Text Citations
For each in-text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list and for each reference list citation there must be a corresponding in-text citation. Each corresponding citation must have identical spelling and year. The purpose of the in-text citation is to briefly give readers the identity of the information you are citing, and allow them to find the information you provide in the reference list that enables readers to locate the exact piece of literature you used.
Rule #2 of APA Text Citations
Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information:
Many times, this information will appear like this (Smith, 2006). However, the same information may appear in other ways. Consult chapter 6 of the 6th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more details.
Most citations only require the author and the date of publication:
Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples
Two or more authors
For two authors, cite both names every time there is a reference.
Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found that
More than two authors
Cite all authors the first time a reference appears, and then only the first author with et al. appended.
Kisangau et al. (2007) found that