This guide shows you some of the most frequently used citation or style questions in APA format.
The 2010 APA Publication Manual (6th edition) says: Use a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) in citing articles whether accessed in the print or electronic form. A DOI is prefereable to a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) when citing an online resource.
A DOI is a digital object identifier – a unique alphanumeric code that gives a persistent link to the web location for an electronic item. At this point, more and more journal articles are assigned DOIs. DOIs are commonly seen on current electronic journal articles, but are often also included in the print version of the article. Here is an example of a DOI:
How do I find the DOI for an article?
Author’s last name, Author’s first initial (and middle name initial). (Year). Title. State of publication, City: Publisher.
Davidson, I. (2016). The French Revolution: from Enlightenment to tyranny. New York, NY: Pegasus Books.
Journal from an Online Database
Author’s last name, Author’s first initial (and middle name initial). (Year). Title. Periodical, volume number (issue if available), pages. doi: xxxxx.xxx (no period after)
Deb, A.K. (2018). ‘Surrender to nature’: Worldviews and rituals of the small-scale coastal fishers of Bangladesh. Marine Policy, 92, 1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.01.01
A few general rules about creating citations in APA style:
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency. London, England: Taylor & Francis.
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Collected Works (e.g. books with different authors for each section/chapter)
VandenBos, G. R. (Ed.). (2007). APA dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry
Bergmann, P.G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopaedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopaedia; Britannica.
Scholarly Journal Articles
Herbst-Damn, K. L., & Kulik , J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, martial status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229.
Scholarly Journal Article from Library Database
Herbst-Damn, K. L., & Kulik , J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, martial status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24, 225-229. doi:10.1037/0278-6220.127.116.11.
Note: The DOI (digital object identifier) is preferable to the URL.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.
Rule #1 of APA Text Citations
For each in-text citation there must be a corresponding citation in the reference list and for each reference list citation there must be a corresponding in-text citation. Each corresponding citation must have identical spelling and year. The purpose of the in-text citation is to briefly give readers the identity of the information you are citing, and allow them to find the information you provide in the reference list that enables readers to locate the exact piece of literature you used.
Rule #2 of APA Text Citations
Each text citation must include at least two pieces of information:
Many times, this information will appear like this (Smith, 2006). However, the same information may appear in other ways. Consult chapter 6 of the 6th Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association for more details.
Most citations only require the author and the date of publication:
Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples
Two or more authors
For two authors, cite both names every time there is a reference.
Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found that
More than two authors
Cite all authors the first time a reference appears, and then only the first author with et al. appended.
Kisangau et al. (2007) found that