This guide shows you some of the most frequently used citation or style questions in MLA format.
Interview You Conducted:
Kumar, Pranab. Personal Interview. 20 Sept. 2004
Blair, Tony. Interview by David Dimbleby. Question Time. BBC 1. London. 6 July 2004.
McKay, John. Interview by Derek Wang. KUOW News. KUOW, Seattle, 15 March 2007. Radio. 24 April 2008.
Painting Found Online:
Lawrence, Jacob. Revolt on the Amistad. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1989. Web. 25 July 2008.
Photograph Found Online:
Liebowitz, Annie. Monument Valley. Brooklyn Museum, New York, 1993. Web. 8 Feb. 2008
Map Found Online:
"Africa Population Density." Map. Perry-Castaneda Library Map Collection. University of Text at Austin, 22 Jun 2007. Web. 10 Jan. 2008.
Generally you will not know the author of a government document. When that is the case, cite the government agency that issued the work as the author. State the name of the government first, followed by the agency's name. Abbreviate common words such as department (Dept.) Follow the guidelines in section 5.6.21 of the MLA Handbook if the work you are citing is not in the examples below.
If the author is known, you can either begin the citation with the government agency, as in the examples above, and list the author's name after the document title, preceded by the word "By" or an abbreviation, such as Ed. Alternatively you can begin the citation with the author's name. Either format is correct.
United Nations. Feeding the World's Poor. New York: Taylor, 2000. Print.
United States. Cong. Joint Committee on Terrorism. Hearings. 81st Cong., 1st sess. 14 vols. Washington: GPO, 2001. Print.
United States, U.S. Department of Education. No Child Left Behind. A Toolkit for Teachers. 2004. Web. 6 March 2007.
United States. U.S. Department of Justice. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency. Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime. By Howard N. Snyder. Dec. 2001. Web. 29 June 2002.
Snyder, Howard N. Law Enforcement and Juvenile Crime. United States Department of Justice. Office of Juvenile Crime, Dec. 2001. Web. 29 June 2008.
Johnson, Roberta. Gender and Nation in the Spanish Modernist Novel. Nashville: Vanderbilt UP, 2003. Print.
More than one author
Broer, Lawrence R., and Gloria Holland. Hemingway and Women: Female Critics and the Female Voice. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 2002. Print.
Note: For more than three authors, you may name the first author and add et al., or you give all names in full.
An edition other than the first edition
Cree, Alice. Essays on Native American History. 2nd ed. Cactusville: Heritage, 1992. Print.
Beckwith, Carol and Angela Fisher. African Ceremonies. 2 vols. New York: Abrams, 1999. Print.
White, Mark D. "Why Doesn't Batman Kill the Joker?" Introducing Philosophy through Pop Culture: From Socrates to South Park, Hume to House. Eds. William Irvin andDavid Kyle Johnson. West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010. 163-171. Print.
Gunasekaran, Angappa, Omar Khalil, and Sayed M. Rahman, eds. Knowledge and Information Technology Management: Human and Social Perspectives. Hershey: New Ideas, 2000. Books 24x7. Web. 22 July 2008.
Scholarly Journal Articles
Williams, Linda. “Of Kisses and Ellipses: The Long Adolescence of American Movies.” Critical Inquiry 32.2 (2006): 288-340. Print.
Scholarly Journal Article from Library Database
Tolson, Nancy. “Making Books Available: The Role of Early Libraries, Librarians, and Booksellers in the Promotion of African American Children’s Literature. African America Review 32.1 (1998): 9-16. JSTOR. Web. 5 June 2008.
Kates, Robert W. “Population and Consumption: What We Know, What We Need to Know.” Environment Apr. 2000: 10-19. Print.
Kelly, Brian. "Why Green Matters Now." U.S. News & World Report 146.3 (2009): 4. GreenFILE. EBSCO. Web. 25 Nov. 2009.
McKay, Peter A. “Stocks Feel the Dollar’s Weight.” Wall Street Journal 4 Dec. 2006. C1+. Print.
Solache, Sergio. "Mexico's Dam Projects May Flood Villages." USA Today Nov. 12, 2009: 8A. Academic OneFile. Web. 25 Nov. 2009.
Yoffee, Emily. "What Kids Like to Do Online." Slate. Washington Post Company, 14 Sept. 2007. Web. 24 Sept. 2008.
Note: “14 Sept. 2007” is the date of website publication or last update. “24 Sept. 2008” is the date you accessed the page.
Website with No Author
“Hourly News Summary.” National Public Radio. Natl. Public Radio, 20 July 2007. Web. 7 September 2009.
Note: “20 July 2007” is the date of website publication or last update. “7 September 2009” is the date you accessed the page.
Hoover's Online. Hoover's, Inc., 2007. Web. 5 June 2008.
Page/Article within a Web Site, No Publisher or Published Date:
Pasold, Lisa. "Paris Architecture Explained." Paris Notes. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2008.
In-text or parenthetical citations require only the author and page number. If the author is mentioned in the sentence, include only the page number:
Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3). Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
If the author is unknown, include a few words of the title:
We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change . . . ” (“Impact of Global Warming” 6).
Begin the citation with the name of either the composer or the performer, followed by the title of the recording, the performer (if not put first), the format (CD, audio cassette or LP), the manufacturer and the year.
Performer and Composer are the Same or No Composer:
Lewiston, David. Fiestas of Peru: Music of the High Andes. CD. Nonesuch Records, 1995.
Composer and Performer:
Guthrie, Woody. Peter Seeger Sings Woody Guthrie. Perf. Pete Seeger. Audio cassette. Folkways, 1968.
Citations for audio/video materials include the author (if available), the title, producing company and date. Other elements vary depending on the type of material. Follow the examples below and refer to the MLA Handbook, if necessary.
Television or Radio Program:
"Cuba and Cocaine." Narr. Bill Moyers. Frontline. Documentary Consortium. PBS. WTVS, Miami. 18 Jan. 1990. Television.
Films (DVDs, VHS):
With films, list the title, director, form of media, distributor and year. Other items such as the writer, performers and producers are not required but may be included before the distributor.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Dir. Denise Guyen. SVE Inc. 1988. DVD.
It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stewart, Donna Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. RKO, 1946. DVD